What is Polylactide: A Comprehensive Guide to Understanding this Biodegradable Polymer

Polylactide, commonly known as PLA, is a versatile and environmentally friendly biodegradable polymer that has gained significant attention in recent years. Derived from renewable resources like cornstarch or sugarcane, PLA offers a sustainable alternative to conventional plastics. In this blog article, we will delve into the world of polylactide, exploring its properties, applications, and environmental impact.

First developed in the 1930s, it wasn’t until the 1990s that PLA started gaining traction as an alternative to petroleum-based plastics. PLA is derived from lactic acid, which is produced by fermenting sugars. This process results in the creation of polylactide, a polymer that can be molded into various forms, including films, fibers, and rigid containers.

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The Chemistry Behind Polylactide

Polylactide (PLA) is a thermoplastic aliphatic polyester derived from renewable resources. It consists of repeating units of lactic acid, which is a naturally occurring compound found in fermented products like yogurt and sauerkraut. PLA can be synthesized through two main methods: the condensation polymerization of lactic acid or the ring-opening polymerization of lactide, the cyclic dimer of lactic acid. The latter method is more commonly used due to its ability to produce high molecular weight PLA.

Types of PLA

There are different types of PLA based on the stereochemistry of the lactic acid monomers. Poly L-lactide (PLLA) and poly D-lactide (PDLA) are enantiomers, meaning they have the same chemical formula but differ in their three-dimensional arrangement. Additionally, there is poly D,L-lactide (PDLLA), a racemic mixture of the L and D enantiomers. The different types of PLA have varying properties and applications.

Molecular Weight

The molecular weight of PLA plays a crucial role in determining its mechanical and thermal properties. High molecular weight PLA exhibits increased tensile strength, stiffness, and heat resistance. It is essential to control the molecular weight during the polymerization process to achieve the desired properties for specific applications.

Polymerization Process

The ring-opening polymerization of lactide involves the use of catalysts and initiators to break the cyclic structure and initiate the polymerization reaction. Common catalysts include tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate, tin(II) octoate, and organic compounds like hydroxylamine. The reaction can be carried out at various temperatures and pressures depending on the desired properties of the PLA.

Properties and Advantages of Polylactide

Polylactide possesses several unique properties that make it an attractive alternative to traditional plastics:

Mechanical Properties

PLA exhibits good mechanical properties, including high tensile strength, stiffness, and impact resistance. This makes it suitable for applications where structural integrity is essential, such as in packaging materials and 3D printing.

Thermal Properties

PLA has a relatively low melting point, typically around 160-180°C, which allows for easy processing and molding. However, its heat resistance is limited compared to other polymers, and it may deform or soften at high temperatures. Modifications can be made to improve PLA’s heat resistance by blending it with other polymers or incorporating additives.

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Barrier Properties

PLA exhibits good barrier properties against oxygen and carbon dioxide, making it suitable for food packaging applications. Its ability to prevent gas permeation helps to extend the shelf life of perishable goods and maintain their freshness.


One of the most significant advantages of PLA is its biodegradability. When exposed to specific environmental conditions, such as composting facilities or soil, PLA undergoes degradation by microorganisms, ultimately breaking down into carbon dioxide, water, and biomass. This natural degradation process reduces the environmental impact of PLA waste and offers a sustainable solution for single-use items.


PLA is not only biodegradable but also compostable. Composting PLA products in industrial composting facilities allows for their complete breakdown within a relatively short period, usually around 12 weeks. The resulting compost can be used as a nutrient-rich soil amendment, contributing to the circular economy and sustainable agriculture.

Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions

As PLA is derived from renewable resources, its production contributes fewer greenhouse gas emissions compared to conventional plastics made from fossil fuels. The cultivation of crops used in PLA production, such as corn or sugarcane, helps sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, further mitigating climate change impacts.

Applications of Polylactide

Polylactide finds applications in various industries due to its versatility and eco-friendly nature:


PLA is widely used in the packaging industry for applications such as food containers, cups, trays, and films. Its excellent barrier properties, transparency, and printability make it an ideal choice for ensuring product safety and enhancing shelf appeal.


PLA fibers can be used to create sustainable textiles for clothing and home furnishing. These fibers offer properties similar to polyester, such as durability, moisture-wicking, and breathability. PLA-based textiles are increasingly popular in the fashion industry as a greener alternative to traditional synthetic fibers.

3D Printing

PLA’s ability to be easily processed and its biodegradable nature make it a popular choice for 3D printing. PLA filaments are widely available, and their low melting point allows for easier extrusion. 3D printed objects made from PLA can be composted, further reducing waste in the manufacturing process.

Medical Implants

PLA’s biocompatibility and biodegradability make it suitable for medical applications, including the production of implants and drug delivery systems. PLA implants gradually degrade over time, reducing the need for additional surgeries to remove them. They also provide a temporary scaffold for tissue regeneration.

Disposable Cutlery

PLA-based disposable cutlery offers a sustainable alternative to single-use plastic utensils. These items can be composted after use, reducing the environmental impact associated with conventional plastic cutlery. PLA’s rigidity and heat resistance make it suitable for such applications.

Manufacturing Process of Polylactide

The manufacturing process of PLA involves several steps:

Lactic Acid Production

Lactic acid, the precursor to PLA, can be produced through the fermentation of sugars derived from renewable sources like corn, sugarcane, or cassava. The fermentation process involves the use of specific bacteria that convert the sugars into lactic acid, which is then purified.

Lactide Production

Lactic acid can be further processed to produce lactide, the cyclic dimer of lactic acid. The lactic acid undergoes a dehydration process, leading to the formation of lactide. This step is crucial for achieving high molecular weight PLA.

Ring-Opening Polymerization

The lactide monomers are then subjected to ring-opening polymerization. This process involves the addition of catalysts and initiators, which break the cyclic structure and initiate the polymerization reaction. The reaction can be carried out at different temperatures and pressures to control the properties of the resulting PLA.

Purification and Processing

The obtained PLA undergoes purification to remove impurities and unreacted monomers. It is then processed into various forms, including pellets, films, fibers, or containers, depending on the intended application. Processing techniques such as extrusion, injection molding, or blow molding can be employed.

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Biodegradability and Environmental Impact

Polylactide’s biodegradability and environmental impact are significant factors in its widespread adoption:

Biodegradation Process

When exposed to specific environmental conditions, such as composting facilities or soil, PLA undergoes biodegradation. Microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi, break down the polymer chains into simpler compounds. The process involves enzymatic hydrolysis, resulting in the release of carbon dioxide, water, and biomass.

Environmental Benefits

PLA’s biodegradability helps reduce the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills and oceans. As it breaks down into harmless natural compounds, it minimizes the environmental impact associated with traditional plastics. PLA production also contributes fewer greenhouse gas emissions compared to petroleum-based plastics, aiding in the mitigation of climate change.

Proper Disposal and Composting

For PLA to biodegrade efficiently, it requires specific environmental conditions found in industrial composting facilities. These facilities provide the ideal temperature, humidity, and microbial activity necessary for PLA breakdown. It is essential to dispose of PLA products properly to ensure their effective biodegradation.

Challenges and Considerations

Despite its biodegradability, PLA faces challenges in terms of its environmental impact. For instance, if PLA ends up in a landfill or the natural environment without the proper conditionsfor biodegradation, it may degrade at a slower pace or not at all. Additionally, the production of PLA requires agricultural land and resources, which raises concerns about potential competition with food production. However, ongoing research and development efforts are focused on improving PLA’s biodegradability and addressing these challenges to ensure its sustainable use.

Comparisons with Other Biodegradable Polymers

While PLA is a prominent biodegradable polymer, it is essential to understand its comparisons with other alternatives:

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)

PHA is a family of biodegradable polymers produced by microorganisms. Like PLA, PHA is derived from renewable resources and offers biodegradability. However, PHA exhibits different mechanical and thermal properties, making it suitable for specific applications. PHA’s production process and cost also differ from PLA, influencing its commercial viability.

Polybutylene Succinate (PBS)

PBS is another biodegradable polymer derived from renewable resources. It possesses good mechanical and thermal properties, allowing for various applications. However, PBS’s biodegradation rate and environmental impact differ from PLA. PBS may require specific conditions or microbial activity for efficient breakdown.

Considerations for Different Biodegradable Polymers

When choosing between different biodegradable polymers, factors such as mechanical properties, processing capabilities, biodegradability rate, and environmental impact should be considered. Each polymer has its strengths and limitations, depending on the intended application and disposal method. It is crucial to assess the specific requirements and environmental considerations to make an informed decision.

Challenges and Limitations of Polylactide

While PLA offers numerous advantages, it also faces certain challenges and limitations:


PLA production costs are generally higher compared to conventional plastics. The extraction and purification of lactic acid, as well as the polymerization process, contribute to the overall cost. However, as technology advances and economies of scale are achieved, the cost of PLA is expected to decrease, making it more economically viable.

Heat Resistance

PLA has limited heat resistance compared to certain traditional plastics. It may soften or deform when exposed to high temperatures, which can limit its use in certain applications. However, ongoing research focuses on improving PLA’s heat resistance through modifications and blending with other polymers.

Sensitivity to Moisture

PLA can be sensitive to moisture, leading to reduced mechanical properties and potential degradation. Proper storage and handling are necessary to minimize moisture absorption and maintain PLA’s performance. Innovations in PLA formulations aim to enhance its moisture resistance for extended applications.

Processing Challenges

PLA’s processing requirements can be different from those of conventional plastics, requiring adjustments in machinery and processing parameters. Its relatively low melt temperature and unique rheological behavior may pose challenges during extrusion, injection molding, or other processing techniques. However, with proper adjustments and equipment, PLA can be successfully processed in various applications.

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Future Prospects and Innovations

The future of polylactide holds exciting possibilities and ongoing innovations:

Improved Properties

Ongoing research and development efforts are focused on enhancing PLA’s properties, such as heat resistance, impact strength, and barrier properties. By incorporating additives, blending with other polymers, or modifying the polymerization process, researchers aim to expand PLA’s potential applications and overcome its limitations.

Advanced Processing Techniques

New processing techniques are being explored to improve PLA’s processability and expand its use in different industries. For example, advances in additive manufacturing technologies, such as fused deposition modeling (FDM), enable the production of complex PLA-based 3D printed objects with enhanced mechanical properties.

Biocompatible Applications

PLA’s biocompatibility makes it suitable for various medical applications, including tissue engineering, drug delivery systems, and biodegradable implants. Ongoing research focuses on developing PLA-based biomaterials with tailored properties for specific medical needs, contributing to advancements in healthcare and regenerative medicine.

Cost Reduction

As PLA production scales up and technology advances, efforts are being made to reduce its production costs. This includes optimizing lactic acid production processes, exploring alternative feedstocks, and improving the efficiency of polymerization methods. Cost reduction will enhance PLA’s competitiveness and increase its adoption in various industries.

Regulations and Standards for Polylactide

Several regulations and standards ensure the quality, safety, and environmental impact of polylactide:

European Union’s EN 13432

EN 13432 is a standard that defines the requirements for the compostability and biodegradability of packaging materials, including PLA. It specifies criteria for the biodegradation rate, disintegration, and absence of ecotoxicity. Products meeting this standard can be certified as compostable.

United States’ ASTM D6400

ASTM D6400 is a standard that establishes the criteria for the compostability of plastics, including PLA, in municipal and industrial composting facilities. It outlines the conditions and testing methods to determine the biodegradability and disintegration of compostable materials.

Other Regional and International Standards

Various other standards and certifications exist worldwide to ensure the quality and environmental impact of PLA and PLA-based products. These include certifications like the Australian Bioplastics Association’s AS 4736 and the Japanese GreenPla certification. Adhering to these standards ensures compliance and reinforces the credibility of PLA-based products.

The Role of Polylactide in a Sustainable Future

Polylactide plays a crucial role in achieving a more sustainable future in several ways:

Reducing Single-Use Plastics

PLA offers a sustainable alternative to single-use plastics, which contribute to environmental pollution and waste. By replacing conventional plastic products with PLA-based alternatives, we can reduce the reliance on non-biodegradable materials and minimize their impact on ecosystems.

Lowering Carbon Emissions

The production of PLA emits fewer greenhouse gases compared to petroleum-based plastics. Additionally, as PLA biodegrades, it releases carbon dioxide, which can be reabsorbed by plants during the growth of feedstock crops. This carbon-neutral cycle helps mitigate climate change and reduce our carbon footprint.

Promoting Circular Economy Practices

PLA’s biodegradability and compostability contribute to the circular economy by enabling the conversion of waste into valuable resources. Proper disposal and composting of PLA products create nutrient-rich compost, which can be used to enrich soil and support sustainable agricultural practices.

Encouraging Research and Adoption

Continued research and development efforts in the field of polylactide are essential to drive innovation, improve properties, and expand its applications. Encouraging the adoption of PLA in various industries, such as packaging, textiles, and healthcare, can accelerate the transition to a more sustainable and eco-friendly future.

In conclusion, polylactide is a remarkable biodegradable polymer that offers a sustainable alternative to traditional plastics. Its unique properties, diverse applications, and positive environmental impact make it an essential component of a greener future. By understanding the chemistry behind polylactide, its manufacturing process, and its strengths and limitations, we can foster innovation and widespread adoption of this eco-friendly material.

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